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bismuth telluride estimates

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SELENIUM AND TELLURIUM [ADVANCE RELEASE]

Semiconducting bismuth telluride was used in thermoelectric cooling devices. These devices consist of a series of semiconducting material couples that, when connected ... 2016, a 13% increase from the 2015 estimate of 810 t. China's estimated production of tellurium was .

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A New Look at Windy Craggy – Resource World Magazine

This estimate should be considered a minimum, as a new zinc-rich (Ridge) zone was discovered at the end of latest drilling campaign in 1990 and remains open. ... pyrite and sphalerite with lesser amounts of marcasite, galena, digenite, arsenopyrite, an unidentified bismuth telluride, cobaltite, cubanite, native gold, electrum and native silver.

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Automotive Thermoelectric Generator Market Size, Share ...

Global Thermoelectric Materials Market – Analysis & Forecast, 2018-2023: Focus on Type (Bismuth Telluride, Lead Telluride, and Silicon Germanium) and Application (Healthcare, Automotive, Industrial, Electrical, and Electronics) The global thermoelectric materials market is expected to grow at a CAGR of 8.49% and 9.09%...

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The Tellurium Supply Conjecture and the Future of First ...

Jul 09, 2009· The remainder is mostly a byproduct of lead and some small amounts exist as ore forms in some deposits of gold, silver, and bismuth. In the case of 'telluride' ores of gold, silver, and ...

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Bismuth - Wikipedia

Bismuth telluride is a semiconductor and an excellent thermoelectric material. Bi 2 Te 3 diodes are used in mobile refrigerators, CPU coolers, and as detectors in infrared spectrophotometers. Bismuth oxide, in its delta form, is a solid electrolyte for oxygen. This form normally breaks down below a high-temperature threshold, but can be ...

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(PDF) Combined Efficiency Calculation of Bismuth Telluride ...

Abstract:- The heat rejected from an internal combustion engine is dumped into the atmosphere as waste heat. If this waste heat energy is tapped and converted into usable energy, the overall efficiency of an engine can be improved. The percentage of

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Title: Thermoelectric properties of the bismuth telluride ...

Apr 02, 2008· Abstract: Electronic structure of bismuth telluride nanowires with the growth directions [110] and [015] is studied in the framework of anisotropic effective mass method using the parabolic band approximation. The components of the electron and hole effective mass tensor for six valleys are calculated for both growth directions. For a square nanowire, in the .

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JOURNAL OF OPTOELECTRONICS AND ADVANCED .

bismuth telluride NW can be obtained by electrochemical deposition of the material in the nanopores of anodized alumina membranes, by Taylor-Ulitovsky technique, and by high pressure injection of the melt into capillaries [2,3]. ... To estimate the nanowire

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Making flexible spin caloritronic devices with ...

Calculations of the thermoelectric PF at RT lead to . and (see section S2 for the estimation of the resistivity values), which are comparable values or even larger than the PF of the widely used thermoelectric material, bismuth telluride (in the range of 1 to 5 mW/K 2 m) .

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Title: Thermoelectric properties of the bismuth telluride ...

Apr 02, 2008· Abstract: Electronic structure of bismuth telluride nanowires with the growth directions [110] and [015] is studied in the framework of anisotropic effective mass method using the parabolic band approximation. The components of the electron and hole effective mass tensor for six valleys are calculated for both growth directions. For a square nanowire, in the temperature range from 77 K to .

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The Thermoelectric Properties of n-Type Bismuth Telluride ...

Alloying bismuth telluride with antimony telluride and bismuth selenide for p- and n-type materials, respectively, improves the thermoelectric quality factor for use in room temperature modules. As the electronic and thermal transports can vary substantially, the alloy composition is a key engineering parameter. The n-type Bi 2 Te 3-x

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Performance of Bismuth Telluride Prepared by

crystals Article E ect of Deposition Power on the Thermoelectric Performance of Bismuth Telluride Prepared by RF Sputtering Kai-Yan Zang 1, Er-Tao Hu 2, Zheng-Yong Wang 2, Hua-Tian Tu 1, Yu-Xiang Zheng 1, Song-You Wang 1, Hai-Bin Zhao 1, Yue-Mei Yang 1, Young-Pak Lee 3 and Liang-Yao Chen 1,* 1 Department of Optical Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China;

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How Thermoelectric Generators Work | Applied ...

Antimony Bismuth Telluride (BiSbTe) What is a Thermoelectric Generator Module? To create a thermoelectric generator module, many p-type and n-type couples are connected electrically in series and / or parallel to create the desired electrical current and voltage. The couples are placed between two parallel ceramic plates.

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Appendix H :: Strategic Materials — The World Factbook ...

Quantitative estimates of hafnium resources are not available. ... Other potential sources of tellurium include bismuth telluride and gold telluride ores. Substitutes: Several materials can replace tellurium in most of its uses, but usually with losses in efficiency or product characteristics. Bismuth, calcium, lead, phosphorus, selenium, and ...

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SELENIUM AND TELLURIUM [ADVANCE RELEASE]

Semiconducting bismuth telluride was used in thermoelectric cooling devices. These devices consist of a series of semiconducting material couples that, when connected ... 2016, a 13% increase from the 2015 estimate of 810 t. China's estimated production of tellurium was 279 t, a slight decrease

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Preparation of bismuth telluride based thermoelectric ...

current technology. Bismuth telluride based alloys have a dimensionless figure of merit, a measure of efficiency, near one at room temperature, which makes it the best current material. In order to compete with other forms of energy generation, this needs to be increased to three or higher [2]. Recently, improvements in performance have come in

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Performance of Bismuth Telluride Prepared by

crystals Article E ect of Deposition Power on the Thermoelectric Performance of Bismuth Telluride Prepared by RF Sputtering Kai-Yan Zang 1, Er-Tao Hu 2, Zheng-Yong Wang 2, Hua-Tian Tu 1, Yu-Xiang Zheng 1, Song-You Wang 1, Hai-Bin Zhao 1, Yue-Mei Yang 1, Young-Pak Lee 3 and Liang-Yao Chen 1,* 1 Department of Optical Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China;

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The Optical Properties of Bismuth Telluride Infra-red ...

The Optical Properties of Bismuth Telluride 549 4.4. Refractive Index Many specimens showed well-defined transmission interference fringes and and these were used to calculate the refractive index n, using the relation, 2nt= NA where t is the sample thickness and N the fringe number.Approximate

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Anisotropic Effects on the Thermoelectric Properties of ...

Band structure of bismuth telluride, bismuth selenide and their respective alloys. Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids 26, 1585–1604 (1965). Delves R. T. et al. . Anisotropy of the Electrical Conductivity in Bismuth Telluride. Proceedings of the Physical Society 78, 838 (1961). Goldsmid H. J. Recent Studies of Bismuth Telluride and Its ...

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bismuth | Properties, Uses, Symbol, & Facts | Britannica

Bismuth, the most metallic and the least abundant of the elements in the nitrogen group (Group 15 [Va] of the periodic table). Bismuth is hard, brittle, lustrous, and coarsely crystalline. It can be distinguished from all other metals by its color—gray-white with a reddish tinge.

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Process for the chemical preparation of bismuth telluride ...

Oct 17, 1995· A process for producing bismuth telluride including dissolving tellurium to form a first solution; heating the first solution to approximately 70° C.; stirring the first solution; slowly and quantatively adding an amount of bismuth trioxide (Bi 2 O 3) to produce a Bi/Te second solution wherein the ratio of Bi: Te=2:3; cooling the second solution to approximately 25° C.; preparing a solution ...

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SAFETY DATA SHEET Bismuth Telluride (pieces)

Bismuth Telluride (pieces) Hazard statements H301 Toxic if swallowed. H330 Fatal if inhaled. Precautionary statements P260 Do not breathe vapor/ spray. P264 Wash contaminated skin thoroughly after handling. P284 [In case of inadequate ventilation] wear respiratory protection. P301+P310 If swallowed: Immediately call a poison center/ doctor.

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Bismuth Telluride | AMERICAN ELEMENTS

Bismuth Telluride is a narrow gap layered semiconductor with high thermal conductivity. Recent research has confirmed that bismuth telluride may significantly increase the speed of microchips and be the basis for the emerging next generation technology know as "Spintronics". American Elements Bismuth Telluride products are generally available ...

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Preparation of bismuth telluride based thermoelectric ...

current technology. Bismuth telluride based alloys have a dimensionless figure of merit, a measure of efficiency, near one at room temperature, which makes it the best current material. In order to compete with other forms of energy generation, this needs to be increased to three or higher [2]. Recently, improvements in performance have come in

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Anisotropic Effects on the Thermoelectric Properties of ...

Jan 18, 2016· Greenaway, D. L. et al. Band structure of bismuth telluride, bismuth selenide and their respective alloys. Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids 26, 1585–1604 (1965). CAS ADS Article Google ...

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Yaguo Wang Mode-WiseThermalConductivity

bismuth telluride. In this study, we adopt two-body interatomic potentials to study the anharmonic mode-wise phonon properties of bulk Bi 2Te 3 ... B/V to estimate thermal conductivity at 300K, where k B is the Boltzmann constant where V is the volume of the MD simula-tion cell. The second component anharmonic phonon velocity is

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Yaguo Wang Mode-WiseThermalConductivity

bismuth telluride. In this study, we adopt two-body interatomic potentials to study the anharmonic mode-wise phonon properties of bulk Bi 2Te 3 ... B/V to estimate thermal conductivity at 300K, where k B is the Boltzmann constant where V is the volume of the MD simula-tion cell. The second component anharmonic phonon velocity is

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Thermoelectric Properties of Bismuth Antimony Telluride Alloys

Bismuth Antimony Telluride Alloys . Thesis by . Hyun-Sik Kim. In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy . CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Pasadena, California . 2016 (Defended May 23, 2016)

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The Electrical Properties of Bismuth Telluride

The Electrical Properties of Bismuth Telluride 73 T Assuming therefore a scattering mechanism giving Y = - 4, the reduced Fermi level 17" was determined from the thermoelectric power, using the equation and the conductivity uo which would be obtained if there were no degeneracy was calculated from the measured conductivity U, using the expression

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Thermoelectric Properties of Bismuth Antimony Telluride .

Bismuth Antimony Telluride Alloys . Thesis by . Hyun-Sik Kim. In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy . CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Pasadena, California . 2016 (Defended May 23, 2016)

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